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  The Concensus Conference


Consensus meeting on “Dietary fat intake during the perinatal period”, 11-14 September 2005, Wildbad Kreuth/ Germany


In preparation of the recommendations for dietary fat intake during pregnancy, there had been intensive communication and, in order to support communication between the PERILIP partners and the external experts, a dedicated website had been set up (http://perilip.project-earnest.org). On this website publications related to fatty acid intake during pregnancy and lactation and the presentations of all participants (including the results from PERILIP) were available for download in advance of the consensus meeting. Among the invited experts and PERILIP partners representatives of several international organisations had accepted the invitation, which ensured a wider acceptance and dissemination of the recommendations which were developed.

 

  Participants
Name Institution Other affiliation

Prof. H. Konrad Biesalski, MD

Institute for Biological Chemistry and Nutrition, University of Hohenheim

Prof. Tom Clandinin, PhD

Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta

Prof. William C. Heird, MD

Children´s Nutrition Research Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston

Elvira Larqué Daza, PhD

Dept. of Animal Physiology, University of Murcia

Prof. Hope Weiler, PhD

Department of Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba

Pauline Emmett, PhD

Department of Child Health, University of Bristol

Imogen Rogers, PhD

Department of Child Health, University of Bristol

Paola Roggero, MD

Department of Neonatology, Clinica Mangiagalli, University of Milan

Joachim Heinrich, PhD

GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Epidemiology

Prof. Tamás Decsi, MD, PhD

Departments of Paediatrics, University of Pécs

Kirsi Laitinen, PhD

Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Turku

Irene Hösli, MD,

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Women's Hospital, Basel

Prof. Sjurdur Olsen, MD, PhD

Department of Epidemiology Research, University of Aarhus

Prof. Tom Brenna, PhD

Division of Nutritional Science, Cornell University

International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids (ISSFAL)

Prof. Hania Szajewska, MD

Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition, The Medical University of Warsaw

European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN), Committee on Nutrition

Prof. Berthold Koletzko, MD

Div. Metabolic Diseases and Nutritional Medicine, Dr. von Hauner Children’s Hospital, Munich

Early Nutrition Programming for Adult Health (EARNEST) and PERILIP

Prof. Emilio Herrera, PhD

Faculty of Experimental and Health Sciences, University San Pablo CEU, Madrid

The Diabetic Pregnancy Study Group, European Association of the Study of Diabetes (DPSG)

Peter Dodds, PhD,

Department of Agricultural Science, Imperial College London

PERILIP and Infant Nutrition Cluster

Hildegard Debertin

Div. Metabolic Diseases and Nutritional Medicine, Dr. von Hauner Children’s Hospital, Munich

Child Health Foundation

Prof. Irene Cetin, MD

Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Milan

European Association of Perinatal Medicine (EAPN)

Prof. Kim Michaelsen, MD

Department of Human Nutrition, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg

The International Society for Research in Human Milk and Lactation (ISRHML)

Prof. Fabio Facchinetti, MD

Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia

European Association of Perinatal Medicine

Prof. Lubos Sobotka, CSc

Department of Metabolic Care and Gerontology, Charles University and University Hospital, Hradec Kralove

The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN)

Prof. Gernot Desoye, PhD

Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Graz

International Federation of Placenta Associations (IFPA)

Gioia Alvino, MD

Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Milan

 

Matthew Hyde, B.Sc

Department of Agricultural Science, Imperial College London

 

John Laws, B.Sc

Department of Agricultural Science, Imperial College London

 

Hans Demmelmair, PhD

Div. Metabolic Diseases and Nutritional Medicine, Dr. von Hauner Children’s Hospital, Munich

 

Prof. Guy Putet, MD,

Service de Neonatologie, Hôpital Croix Rousse, Lyon

 

Henar Ortega, PhD

Faculty of Experimental and Health Sciences, Universidad San Pablo CEU, Madrid

 

Illiana Lopez-Soldado, PhD

Faculty of Experimental and Health Sciences, Universidad San Pablo CEU, Madrid

 

Veronika Dietz

Div. Metabolic Diseases and Nutritional Medicine, Dr. von Hauner Children’s Hospital, Munich

 

Juliana von Berlepsch Div. Metabolic Diseases and Nutritional Medicine, Dr. von Hauner Children’s Hospital, Munich  
Recommendations
1 Dietary fat intake during pregnancy and lactation (as a proportion of energy intake) should be the same as that recommended for the general population.
2 The omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), must be deposited in adequate amounts in brain and other tissues during foetal and early postnatal life. Several studies have shown an association between visual and cognitive development of infants and maternal dietary intake of fatty fish or oils providing n-3 LC-PUFA during pregnancy and/or lactation. Therefore, pregnant and lactating women should aim to achieve a dietary intake of n-3 LC-PUFA that supplies a DHA intake of at least 200 mg/day. Intakes of up to 1 g/day of DHA or 2.7 g/day of n-3 LC-PUFA have been used in randomized trials without occurrence of significant adverse effects.
3 Women of childbearing age should consume one to two portions of fish per week, including fatty fish which is a good source of n-3 LC-PUFA. This intake of fatty fish usually does not exceed the tolerable intake of environmental contaminants. Dietary fish should be selected from a wide range of species without undue preference for large predatory fish such as swordfish and tuna which are more likely to be contaminated with methylmercury.
4 Intake of the precursor, alpha-linolenic acid, is far less effective with respect to DHA deposition in foetal brain than the intake of preformed DHA.
5 There is no evidence that women of childbearing age whose dietary intake of linoleic acid is adequate need an additional dietary intake of arachidonic acid.
6 Some, but not all, studies have shown that maternal intake of fish, fish oils or n-3 LC-PUFA results in a slightly longer duration of gestation and a somewhat higher birth weight and one study has shown that n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation of women with a history of preterm delivery reduces the risk of recurrent preterm delivery. At present, however, the implications of such effects with respect to infant health are not clear.
7 Screening for dietary inadequacies should be performed during pregnancy, preferably during the first trimester. If less than desirable dietary habits are detected, individual counselling should be offered during pregnancy as well as during lactation.